REALITY OF INSTRUMENTAL TRANS-COMMUNICATION VOICES SCIENTIFICALLY
DEMONSTRATED ON 5TH DECEMBER 2004 DURING EXPERIMENTS WITH
MARCELLO BACCI AT GROSSETO ITALY, EUROPE
Dr Anabela Cardoso(1)
Dr Mario Salvatore Festa (2)
Prof David Fontana (3)
and Dr Paolo Presi (4)
report details experiments conducted with Marcello Bacci
at his laboratory in Italy on the evening of 5th December
2004 in the presence of a team of experienced investigators
from Italy, Portugal and the United Kingdom. Marcello Bacci
(e.g. Bacci 1985) is one of the leading researchers into
ITC phenomena, a field in which he has been active for more
than 30 years. It is not the purpose of this Report to provide
a survey of the impressive evidence that has accumulated
for the ITC phenomena since publications by Jürgenson,
Raudive and others in the middle years of the 20th Century
as this has been fully documented elsewhere (e.g., Brune
1993, Senkowski 1995, Brune and Chauvin 1999), so suffice
it to say that the subject is concerned to study the anomalous
communications received, often under controlled conditions,
through electronic media such as audio tape recorders, radio
receivers, computers, fax machines and telephones.
of those working within the field have become convinced
not only of the reality of these communications, but that
they appear to originate with the deceased, and therefore
to provide strong support for the hypothesis of survival
after physical death. Marcello Bacci, who has been
consistently successful in obtaining these communications
in his own experiments, is principally dedicated to working
with bereaved parents, but he is also concerned to co-operate
with scientists in order to demonstrate the credibility
of his results (e.g. those from Il Laboratorio in Bologna,
Italy, the only laboratory in Europe devoted entirely to
the scientific testing and analysis of apparently paranormal
phenomena). An experienced Radio Technician himself, he
takes no money for any of this work and does not seek to
his ITC experiments Marcello Bacci uses the Direct Radio
Voice Method (DRV), i.e. the method that seeks to obtain
anomalous communications directly through the loudspeakers
of radios, and such voices frequently refer to listeners
by name, respond to questions put to them, and sometimes
provide relevant and lengthy items of information. For this
purpose he favours a valve radio, tuned to white noise in
the short-wave band, rather than solid-state technology.
The experiment detailed in this Report was a sequel to a
number of earlier successful investigations carried out
into the voices received by him using this Direct Radio
Two of these
earlier carefully controlled investigations are of particular
relevance to the present experiment. In the first of them,
conducted in the presence of Dr. Eng. Carlo Trajna, a second
radio was set up beside that used by Bacci, connected to
the same power lead, with independent aerial, and tuned
to the same short-wave frequency. While Bacci’s radio
was heard to receive the anomalous voice communications,
the second radio was found to be receiving only normal white
noise (e.g. Trajna 1985). This experiment strongly
discounts the possibility that the anomalous voices were
In the second and equally ground-breaking investigation,
Professor Mario Salvatore Festa, professor of Physics and
Physical Radio Protection at Naples University, and Radio
Technician Franco Santi removed the two valves ECC85 (the
FM valve) and ECH81 (the AM/SW converter valve) from Bacci’s
radio during the receipt of anomalous voices, and established
that even without these valves (in the absence of
which no normal broadcasts can be received in the short
wave band), the voices continued unabated.
During this experiment
Professor Festa also measured the intensities respectively
of the electric field and of the magnetic field adjacent
to the radio with the radio switched off, and both during
normal radio transmission and during the period when the
voice phenomenon occurred, and found that these fields did
not show any variation when the voices phenomenon started
and also that the values measured after the valves were
removed but the voices continued were practically identical
to the values measured when the radio was turned off (see
Festa 2002 for full details).
that the voices continued even in the absence of the valves
and that there was no variation in electric or magnetic
fields during their reception provides further convincing
evidence that such voices cannot be accounted for by fraudulent
The present experiment
took place in Marcello Bacci’s laboratory in Grosseto,
Italy, in electric lighting from a blue coloured, wall mounted,
25-watt bulb, situated just above and slightly to the right
of the radio and bright enough to allow the investigators
to observe closely all movements by Bacci and by each other.
Prior to and subsequent to the experiment, the laboratory
and the radio used by Bacci were available for full inspection
by all those named below.
When the experimental sessions commenced, Marcello Bacci
seated himself directly in front of his radio, a Normende,
Fidelio model, dating from the late 1950s, with Professor
Fontana (professor of Psychology and former President of
the Society for Psychical Research and current Chair of
the Society’s Survival Research Committee) beside
him on his left, and Dr. Anabela Cardoso (founder and Editor
of the ITC Journal and Director of the ITC Journal Research
Centre) immediately behind him and positioned so that she
could look directly over his left shoulder that she could
touch with her chin.
named in connection with one of the two investigations already
described, was seated on Dr. Anabela Cardoso’s left,
and Mr. Robin Foy (leader of the well-known Scole investigation
in the UK and an expert in physical psychic phenomena) on
These four investigators
were at all times in close touching proximity to Marcello
Bacci. Aeronautical Engineer Paolo Presi (a leading member
of Il Laboratorio and a long-standing investigator of the
Bacci phenomena) was on Bacci’s left, separated from
him by Mrs. Laura Pagnotta, daughter of the benefactress
Silvana who has been a close collaborator and observer of
Mr. Bacci’s work for 20 years, and by Professor Fontana.
Radio Technician Franco Santi, named with Professor Festa
in connection with the investigation already described,
remained free to move around the room for reasons detailed
shortly, and Mr. Angelo Toriello, also called Emanuele,
and Mr. Sandro Zampieri, both of whom have also been close
observers of Mr. Bacci for many years were also in close
attendance, Mr. Toriello seated on Dr. Cardoso’s right,
and Mr. Zampieri just behind Professor Festa.
Festa, another researcher who has worked closely with Bacci
for some years, accompanied by his wife Mrs. Rossella Forte
was also seated close by. Sandro Zampieri (Sandro is the
official translator of the group into English) with his
wife Mrs. Maria, Mrs. Carmelina and Mr. Gennaro Dara, Mr.
Franco Grigiotti, a close and old friend of Marcello, Mrs.
Angela and Mr. Luciano Manzoni, responsible for the tape
recording of the sessions and for the transcripts, were
also seated in the vicinity. In the room there were also
a few mothers who had lost their children and other experimenters
exceptionally admitted at the session in a total of 37 people.
The radio was
situated on a workbench placed against the wall directly
facing the investigators, and in a position that made it
inaccessible from the rear except by leaning over the bench
from the front. There is no back to the radio, and sufficient
space was left between it and the wall for Radio Technician
Franco Santi to reach inside by leaning across the bench,
as detailed shortly. Inspection prior to the experiment
had revealed that there was no access to the radio through
apertures in the workbench or in the wall. Behind Bacci
and the investigators and separated from them by approximately
one and a half metres were rows of chairs on which some
of those who attend Bacci’s regular sessions for bereaved
parents were seated. No member of this latter group took
any part in the experiment or approached the radio used
by Bacci at any point in the course of it.
at 19.10 hours, with Bacci, the investigators and those
elsewhere in the room all in their places. Audio tape recorders
(analogue and digital) were switched on in order to record
proceedings. Bacci began by turning on his radio and selecting
the short wave band. He then, as is his usual practice,
began slowly to turn the tuning control, scanning the range
from 7 to 9 megahertz. As expected, this produced a range
of radio transmissions interspersed with white noise.
in Italian that he was ‘searching for good white noise’.
This procedure continued for 15-20 minutes until
Bacci pronounced, again in Italian ‘I can feel them
– they will come’. At this point he stopped
turning the dial, and the white noise was heard to change
to a vortex-like sound that could variously be described
as wind or the sound of waves. Shortly afterwards this noise
died down (though often it recurred simultaneously with
the voices, as if they were in some way ‘carried’
on its sound) and voices became audible from the radio.
The first words were in Italian, and these were followed
by words in Spanish. Bacci, again in Italian, informed those
responsible for the voices that they could ‘speak
in Portuguese, English or Spanish’. The invisible
communicators then addressed David Fontana and Robin Foy
in English and Anabela Cardoso in Spanish.
ensuing session, which lasted in all for approximately one
hour, what appeared to be five or six separate voices (one
of them possibly female, and the rest male) spoke in English
and in Spanish as well as in Italian, some of them with
a clarity resembling that of normal voices, others with
the sonority that characterises many ITC voices and that
renders them distinct from normal articulation.
Also present in the voices were the strange semantics that
are characteristic of many ITC communications (e.g. when
addressing Dr. Cardoso the communicator referred to her
visit to Bacci with the words ‘Anabela is here, you
are going to the learning boss’), and the parabolic,
wave-like speech rhythms.
sound wave carrying the voices became distorted, but in
spite of these features the meaning of approximately
70 per cent of the vocal utterances was directly clear to
those named above, five of whom are fluent in Italian
and English, and one of whom (Dr. Cardoso, a senior Portuguese
diplomat by profession who lives in Spain most of the time),
is fluent in all the languages used as well as in her mother
referred to those present by their first names, and addressed
Professor Fontana by both his first and second names (‘David
Fontana’, perhaps to distinguish him from David Pagnotta,
who was present elsewhere in the room), and then added ‘Ciao
David’. Bacci himself was frequently referred to either
as ‘Marcello’ or as ‘Bacci’. All
names were given clearly, and were easily recognisable.
Sometimes the voices replied to questions in a different
language from that used by the questioner, and
sometimes they even changed languages during the course
of their answers. Not all questions were answered, and certain
of them only after a pause.
The most significant
incident during the session, and the one that marks this
experiment out as of historic importance in the history
not only of ITC research but also of psychical research
in general, occurred near the end of the session. As mentioned
earlier, the finding by Professor Festa and Technician Santi
that removal of two of the valves from the radio did not
prevent the receipt of the anomalous voices provided crucial
evidence that the voices were not produced by fraudulent
transmissions. However, critics have suggested that even
without these two valves it was still technically possible
for the radio to produce sound in other wavebands.
Therefore, with the consent of Marcello Bacci, it was decided
that in the present experiment all five valves would be
removed during the reception of the anomalous voices.
approximately one hour after the commencement of the voices
and while they were still continuing, Radio Technician Franco
Santi leant over the work bench and removed four of the
valves, followed after a short pause due to difficulties
in handling the hot glass, by the removal of the fifth and
last valve. All five valves, ECC85, ECH81 (the two valves
removed in the experiment of 2002), EF89 (the intermediate
frequency amplifier), EABC80 (the AM/FM detector and low
frequency amplifier), and EL84 (the final power amplifier)
were then visible outside the radio, and were laid by Franco
Santi in full view on the workbench. Despite the absence
of the valves, the voices continued with the same volume
and clarity as before.
the voices paused Marcello Bacci, without previous warning
and obviously yielding to an impulse, switched off the radio
at the set and the light illuminating the glass panel at
the front of the set disappeared. After 11 seconds
of silence (the timings reported have been taken from the
tape recorded during the experiment) the observers could
hear modulated whistles (sounds similar to those of whip
lashes) and the usual acoustic signal that precedes Bacci’s
reception of paranormal voices which is similar to a vortex
of the invisible communicator, interspersed with whistles,
recommenced 21 seconds after Bacci had turned the radio
off and continued for 23 seconds (as timed from the audio
tape) with the same acoustic quality previously heard, perhaps
a little slower but as clear as before. When the speech
ended the whistles remained for another 6 seconds while
the vortex which was heard at the end of the vocal utterance
became weaker and finally disappeared after 12 seconds.
However, the contact did not seem to be terminated since
another 53 seconds later the vortex could again be heard
as well as a very weak male voice which seemed to arise
from it and comment the sentence just uttered by Mario Festa
“Siete grandi!” (You are great!). The phenomenon
lasted for 2 minutes and 20 seconds after the radio was
During this time Radio Technician Franco Santi inspected
the interior of the radio with his pencil torch, the beam
of which was briefly visible through the glass panel. This
part of the experiment was unplanned, and occasioned particular
surprise on the part of the observers. In all three parts
of the experiment (radio switched on with valves in place,
radio switched on with valves removed, and radio switched
off with valves removed) the voices came out unequivocally
from the loudspeaker of the radio, and apart from what may
have been a slight loss of quality after the radio was switched
off, with the same volume and clarity. The radio was then
switched back on for a short period, but no further voices
were heard during this time, and the experiment was concluded.
then turned the radio through an angle of 90 degrees so
that the inside could be closely inspected by all present,
with all the room lights now switched on. Dr. Cardoso and
Professor Fontana both took photographic evidence of the
inside of the radio and of the five valves. Lawyer Amerigo
Festa, who also documented the event with his video camera,
made a detailed written account of the incidents surrounding
and consequent upon Franco Santi removing the valves and
Bacci switching off the radio, and this account has been
signed as correct by all those present.
view of the authors of this Report and of all other knowledgeable
observers present, this experiment is of momentous importance
in the history of psychical research because the persistence
of the voices in the absence of the valves and during the
interval when the radio was switched off conclusively discounts
any possibility either of fraud or of the reception of stray
radio transmissions. The experiment was conducted in the
presence and with the participation of investigators with
many years of experience of ITC and of other areas of psychical
research (together, in the case of Professor Festa,
Radio Technician Franco Santi and Aeronautical Engineer
Paolo Presi, with experience in radio technology and in
addition Paolo Presi is an experienced Short Wave Listener
with SWL Licence No. 2330), and this leaves no room for
charges of mal observation or of other forms of experimenter
error. The results of this experiment, taken together with
those yielded by the 2002 experiment of Professor Festa
and Franco Santi, provide firm evidence of the authenticity
of the Bacci voices.
of the acoustic events as perceived from the recorded tape
t = 00 sec Bacci switches off the radio.
t = 11 sec The modulated whistles start (sounds similar
to those of whip lashes) and the conventional recurrent
signal similar to a vortex of air starts to be felt.
t = 21 sec A voice starts to be heard among the whistles.
t = 44 sec The voice finishes but the whistles and the vortex
continue to be heard.
t = 50 sec The whistles finish.
t = 56 sec The vortex finishes.
t = 109 sec A new vortex starts to be heard.
t = 127 sec Faint male voice in the background that seems
to reply to Mario Festa’s comment “Siete grandi!”
(You are great!)
t = 140 sec End of vortex and end of contact.
Journal, Director ITC Journal Research Centre;
2. Professor, Naples University;
3. Past President Society for Psychical Research;
4. Aeronautical Engineer, leading ITC researcher. All four
authors are Associate Members and Researchers of ‘Il
Laboratorio’, Interdisciplinary Laboratory of Biopsychocybernetic
Research, Bologna, Italy
Bacci, M. (1985). Il Mistero Delle Voci Dall’Aldilà.
Roma: Edizioni Mediterranee.
Brune, F. (1993). Les Morts Nous Parlent. Paris: Philipp
Brune, F. and Chauvin, R. (1999). A L’Ecoute de L’Au-Delà.
Paris: Philippe Lebaud.
Festa, M. (2002). A particular experiment at the psychophonic
centre in Grosseto, directed by Marcello Bacci. ITC Journal
(Cadernos de TCI) 10, 27-31.
Senkowski, E. (1995). Instrumentelle Transkommunikation.
Frankfurt: R. G. Fischer Verlag.
Trajna, C. (1985). Introduction in Bacci’s
Il Mistero Delle Voci Dall’Aldilà. Roma: Edizioni
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