A medium is a person who can communicate with people who
have died. There are many different
kinds of mediums.
Mental mediumship is the most common form of mediumship
in the modern western world. A mental medium is someone
who is able to see, hear, smell or sense people in the spirit
world as well as being psychic. Many of the best mental
mediums are able to give public demonstrations of evidence
of survival of their loved ones to large numbers of people
as well giving private readings.
Spiritualist churches in England, the USA and other English
speaking countries, have a long tradition of providing a
platform for mental mediums to give messages during church
services and providing training for mediums in development
circles. In France, Brazil and other Spanish speaking countries
(and elsewhere) the
religion of Spiritism, based on the teachings of Allan
Kardek, does the same.
Gordon Higginson (1918-1993)
was one of the finest British mediums and teachers of mediumship
of the last century. He was a fine mental medium as well
as being able to do trance and physical mediumship and healing.
He began developing his spiritual gifts at a very early
age under the careful supervision of his mother, Fanny Higginson,
who was also an excellent medium. He first publicly demonstrated
his mediumship on his twelfth birthday and he continued
to work the platform for another 63 years until the day
before he passed to spirit. He was renowned for the accuracy
of his platform mediumship and his evidence often included
full names, addresses and telephone numbers. He was also
the Principal of the Arthur
Findlay College, a centre for training mediums in England,
from 1979 to 1993.
Doris Stokes In
the 1980's Doris was one of the best known British mediums
who held huge public demonstrations of mental mediumship
all over the world.
Gordon Smith is one of
Scotland's finest mediums who is currently demonstrating
in the UK. He has been extensively tested by Archie Roy
and Trisha Robinson of the Scottish Society for Psychical
Research. Like Gordon Higginson he is able to give very
detailed messages. Gordon continues to work as a barber
and do his mediumship demonstrations on a voluntary basis
in Spiritualist churches.
2- includes tests being done on
Gordon and Gordon teaching mediumship.
James Van Praagh. One
of the most influential mental mediums in the USA is James
Van Praagh. He had a daytime talk show of his own entitled
Beyond With James Van Praagh which aired in the U.S. from
September 2002 - September 2003 and is still showing in
syndication in Europe, Australia and South America. In April
2002, James began an ongoing relationship with the CBS network
and produced an incredibly successful mini-series Living
With The Dead, inspired by the first of his many best selling
books Talking To Heaven. In October 2004 his second
successful CBS project aired entitled The Dead Will Tell.
Currently James is Co-Executive Producing his first CBS
primetime series Ghost Whisperer starring Jennifer Love
Hewitt. It is currently seen in over 200 markets worldwide.
John Edward is an
American medium who has also been very influential through
his television shows Crossing Over and Cross
Country which are frequently shown on cable television
in many countries.
Lisa Williams is an English-trained
medium now working in the USA. As well as being able to
give an extraordinary amount of detail of the spirit communicating
she seems to be able to capture their body language and
mannerisms. She has brought knowledge of mediumsip to many
people through her television programs.
Many mediums have passed strict scientific tests.
Professor Gary Schwartz and colleagues at the University
of Arizona conducted a number of research studies with some
of the top mediums in the United States including (in order
of working with them) Laurie Campbell, John Edward, Suzanne
Northrop, George Anderson. Anne Gehmen, George Dalzell,
Allison Dubois, Catherine Yunt, Mary Ann Morgan, Janet Mayer,
Christopher Robinson, Traci Bray, Sally Own, Mary Occhino,
Debbie Martin, Doreen Molloy, Sally Morgan, Robert Hansen
and Angelina Diana.
Dr Schwartz writes:
These mediums have been tested under experimental
conditions that rule out the use of fraud and cold reading
techniques commonly used by psychic entertainers and mental
Details of his experiments in the Veritas
Program and the published research reports based on them
are available on his website http://veritas.arizona.edu/.
The video below, made in 1999, shows Professor Schwartz
conducting experiments with five of the mediums.
Part 3 (10 mins)
Part 4 (10 mins)
George Anderson is one of a number of mediums who
developed his abilitites after a near-death experience.
Like John Edward George is a Catholic.
SUZANNE NORTHROP was also one
of the Veritas tested mediums
PROFESOR ARCHIE ROY AND TRICIA ROBERTSON (pictured
left and right) completed afive
year study of mediums in a project called PRISM (Psychic
research Involving Selected Mediums). This resulted in three
peer reviewed papers in the Society for Psychical Research
The third paper showed that even in triple blind conditions
a good medium can deliver relevant information to a sitter
with odds against chance being a million to one.
These papers have never been seriously faulted. 1) Robertson, T. J. & Roy, A.
E. (2001). A preliminary study of
the acceptance by non-recipients of medium’s statement
to recipients. Journal of the Society for Psychical
2) Roy, A. E. & Robertson, T. J. (2001). A double-blind
for assessing the relevance of a medium’s statements
to a recipient. Journal of the Society for Psychical
3) Roy, A. E. & Robertson, T. J. (2004). Results of
of the Robertson-Roy protocol to a series of experiments
with mediums and participants. Journal of the Society
for Psychical Research, 68, 18–34.
At the beginning of the video below Tricia talks with research
medium Gordon Smith, one for the mediums tested in the project.
THE WINDBRIDGE INSTITUTE IN THE USA has
recently conducted many scientific tests on mental mediums
and published peer reviewed academic papers showing that
they are getting very accurate results by means which are
currently unknown to mainstream science. They proved that
the mediums were not cheating or guessing.
You can read about the triple and quintuple blind experiments
they have been carrying out in Julie Beishel's article "The
Reincarmation of Mediuship Research."
CANADIAN MEDIUM CHRIS STILLAR CONDUCTS A READING WITH
DEBRIEF OF THE ABOVE READING
Answering the skeptics
on mental mediumship
try to claim that mental mediumship is a trick. They claim
that it is "cold reading". This
means that the medium watches the client's body language
and tells them vague statements that could apply to anyone.
While this might be true of some people who are
not real mediums, it is not true of the best mediums.
1.The English and Scottish Societies for
Psychical Research and the American Society for Psychical
Research have investigated mediums for over 150
years and found many of them to have access to information
that they could not have gained by any normal means. Archie
Roy and Tricia Robertson, researchers in Scotland, published
three important papers between 2001 and 2004 which showed
that the information being obtained by their research mediums
did not come from guessing or any normal means.
2. In 1917 a father in the spirit
world began to co-operate with his living son in
a series of 348 psychic experiments to provide knowledge
from the spirit world that was not in any earthly
These were the
famous "book tests".
3. Dr Gary Schwartz conducted
a number of experiments where the medium could not even
see the sitters who were only allowed to answer yes or no
during the reading. Yet the mediums scored hit after hit.
(see video above)
4. The Windbridge Institute
has conducted a number of similar double blind experiments
where mediums cannot see the sitter who was only allowed
to answer yes or no. Yet the mediums get spectacular results.
(See video below and Windbridge
5. People can see for themselves
gifted mediums on television come up with names
relationship identification, specific details which could
not possibly be gained from body language (see video of
Lisa Williams below).
DR JULIE BEISCHEL OUTLINES THE SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS THAT
PROVE MEDIUMSHIP IS NOT COLD READING
CAN THIS BE COLD READING? How could any
normal person could get this amount of specific detail from
the grieving fiance's body language?
Warning- many people who claim to be mediums are not genuine.
Remember that the
research mentioned above was done with only the most talented
mental mediums. Unfortunately there are a lot of people
who try to make money who are not very good or who are not
real mediums at all. Sometimes they may be psychics who
think they are getting information from a spirit person
but are actually doing a psychic reading of the sitter's
If you do want to have a sitting with a medium try to get
a recommendation from someone you know or from an organization
that tests mediums. Do some research on "cold reading
techniques" so that you will not be tricked. Be pleasant
and open but limit your answers to yes or no- don't give
away information like names that could come through in the
reading as evidence.
Bob Olson is a private detective who used to be a skeptic.
He has spent 11 years investigating the best mental mediums. Best
How to spot a fake medium with Bob Olson
How to get a good reading from a medium
If you want to have a good reading with a medium
you should be completely open-minded- being skeptical makes
it much harder for the medium. You need to relax for at
least 15-20 minutes before the reading starts and send out
your thoughts to your loved one. Daily meditation in the
days beforehand can help. Medium Carole Lynne (interviewed
below) has written a book How
to Get a Good Reading from a Medium.
Personal recommendationsof mediums who do readings for people anywhere in
One mental medium and teacher
of mediumship who we can personally recommend as absolutely
genuine is Christine
Morgan. Born and trained in England and now based in
Sydney Australia she does telephone readings for people
all over the world in any language. You can email her at